FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 339 Business of Education, appended to the second edition of the former work, in 1804. In both of these works he sets out from " the grand idea of the noble Pestalozzi," and seeks to show that it has appli- cation not merely to the primary school but to all education. " It is the duty of instruction," he says in the latter book, " to guide from below upwards two series, separate but always pro- gressing simultaneously, towards the highest immovable point, in order to unite them ultimately in it. These series may be distin- guished by the names Cognition and Sympathy. The series of Cognition begins with exercises for sharpening sense-impression, and for the first elaboration of it and the nearest experience : in short, with the A B C of sense impression. It would be somewhat more difficult to indicate and justify the starting-point for the series of progressive sympathy. Closer consideration soon shows, however, that this point cannot lie in the actual present. The sphere of childhood is too narrow, and is traversed too soon; the sphere of adult life among cultured people is too high and too much determined by relations which we would not explain to the little boy even if we could. But the time series of history ends in the present, and in the beginnings of our culture among the Greeks a luminous point is fixed for the whole of posterity by the classical presentation of an ideal boyhood era in the Homeric poems. If one is not afraid to let the noblest of languages precede in instruction the accepted learned language, there will be avoided, on the one hand, innumerable perversions and distortions in every- thing pertaining to the understanding of literature, the history of man, of opinions and of arts ; and, on the other hand, we shall be sure to offer to the interest of the child events and personalities he can completely grasp, and from which he can go on to infinitely varied reflections on humanity and society and on the dependence of both on a higher power."* These ideas were worked out by him in detail in the lectures on pedagogy he delivered in Gottingen, and formed the basis of his chief educational treatise, General Principles of Pedagogy deduced from the Aim of Education (1806). fn 1809 he was called to the chair of philosophy and pedagogy at Konigsberg, made famous by Immanuel Kant; and here he remained for nearly a quarter of a century, developing his philo- sophy on all sides, but devoting himself specially to the elaboration of a new mathematical psychology. He was appointed to this chair * Eckoff, Herbaris ABC of Sense Perception, p. xxz.